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  • Writer's picturemarisnoviks

Tough calls: December 2023




The Tough Calls are sponsored by Fiziocentrs – a well known physiotherapy clinic in Latvia. The videos shown below will help to understand the game, referees and rules.


1.White 10 on a fast break drives to the basket but was guarded by Black 8. White 10 took the ball in two hands and started an act of shooting motion. In the same moment Black 8 also put his hands on the ball. Both players held the ball followed by a jump and a traveling violation from the offensive player. Referees called held ball and continued game with alternating possession arrow.


FIBA OBRI 12. Jump ball and alternating possession.

FIBA OBRI 12.1.2. A held ball occurs when one or more players from opposing teams have one or both hands firmly on the ball so that neither player can gain control without undue roughness.

FIBA OBRI 12.4. Alternating possession definition

FIBA OBRI 12.4.1 Alternating possession is a method of causing the ball to become live with a throw-in rather than a jump ball.


Outcome: correct decision from the referees. When White 10 started an act of shooting and defender Black 8 also held the ball, traveling is not considered as a violation because both players are holding the ball. It is a jump ball situation. The game should be resumed by awarding the ball for a throw-in from the place nearest to where the jump ball situation occurs, except directly behind the backboard.




2. White 6 on a fast break drives to the basket, was pushed from defender black 42, who is coming from the side line. Referees call a personal foul, foul not an act of shooting. The referees used the IRS to determine whether to upgrade to an unsportsmanlike foul. After IRS, White team get a throw-in from the side line.


FIBA OBRI F.3.3. whether a personal, unsportsmanlike or disqualifying foul met the criteria for

such a foul or shall be upgraded or downgraded or shall be considered as a technical foul.

FIBA OBRI 15.1.2. The act of shooting on a shot:

Begins when the player starts, in the judgement of a referee, to move the ball upwards towards the opponents’ basket.

FIBA OBRI 37.1.1. Unsportsmanlike foul:

An unnecessary contact caused by the defensive player in order to stop the progress of the offensive team in transition. This applies until the offensive player begins his act of shooting.


Outcome: incorrect decision from the referees. When White 6 was fouled by Black 42, from side, not directly played to ball, White 6 started an act of shooting. After a call, referees correctly use the IRS, but coming with a wrong decision- instead of a throw-in for the White team, White 6 must shoot two free throws as Black 42 makes a foul during an act of shooting.




3. Blue 6 drives to the basket, was fouled from defender White 4. White 4 did tried to stop him, holding his shirt. Referees call a personal foul by White 4, and after using the IRS, upgrade it to an unsportsmanlike foul.


FIBA OBRI F.3.3. whether a personal, unsportsmanlike or disqualifying foul met the criteria for

such a foul or shall be upgraded or downgraded or shall be considered as a technical foul.

FIBA OBRI 15.1.2. The act of shooting on a shot:

Begins when the player starts, in the judgement of a referee, to move the ball upwards towards the opponents’ basket.

FIBA OBRI 37.1.1. Unsportsmanlike foul:

Contact with an opponent and not legitimately attempting to directly play the ball within the spirit and intent of the rules.


Outcome: correct decision from the referees. When Blue 6 was fouled by White 4, Blue 6 did not started an act of shooting. After a call, referees correctly use the IRS, coming with a right decision- White 4 holds a Blue 6 shirt, not played to ball. White 4 charged with an unsportsmanlike foul.




4. White team on a fast break, White 11 starts an act of shooting, but from the back was held by defender Blue 2. Referees call an unsportsmanlike foul by Blue 2.


FIBA OBRI 15.1.2. The act of shooting on a shot:

Begins when the player starts, in the judgement of a referee, to move the ball upwards towards the opponents’ basket.

FIBA OBRI 37.1.1. Unsportsmanlike foul:

  • Contact with an opponent and not legitimately attempting to directly play the ball within the spirit and intent of the rules.

  •  Excessive, hard contact caused by a player in an effort to play the ball or an opponent.


Outcome: correct decision from the referees. When White 11 was fouled by Blue 2, White 11 started an act of shooting, but Blue 2 not legitimately played directly to a ball. Referees correctly call an unsportsmanlike foul by Blue 2- for excessive, hard contact.




5. White 2 runs into a restricted area, jumps to receive a pass from team mate, to make a shot. Defender Black 13 pushes White 2, when he was in the air. Referees call a personal foul by Black 13.


FIBA OBRI 15.1.2. The act of shooting on a shot:

  • Begins when the player starts, in the judgement of a referee, to move the ball upwards towards the opponents’ basket.

FIBA OBRI 15.1.3. The act of shooting in a continuous movement on drives to the basket or other moving shots:

Begins when the ball has come to rest in the player’s hand(s), upon completion of a dribble or a catch in the air and the player starts, in the judgment of the referee, the shooting motion preceding the release of the ball for a field goal.

FIBA OBRI 33.15. Pushing

Pushing is illegal personal contact with any part of the body where a player forcibly moves or attempts to move an opponent with or without the ball.

FIBA OBRI 41.1. Team fouls: Penalty

FIBA OBRI 41.2.1. When a team is in the team foul penalty situation, all following player personal fouls committed on a player not in the act of shooting shall be penalised by 2 free throws, instead of a throw-in. The player on whom the foul was committed shall attempt the free throws.


Outcome: correct decision from the referees. When White 2 was fouled by Black 13, White 2 did not started an act of shooting yet, because he does not get the ball. Referees correctly call a personal foul by Black 13- pushing. Two free throws awarded for White 2, because the Black team has a team foul penalty.

 




6. Black 7 drives to the basket and tries to dunk. He leaves the ball, grabs a ring, ring

vibrates and after that the ball falls in. Referees stay with no call and count a basket.


FIBA OBRI 31.2.6.. Interference occurs when:

After a shot for a field goal or the last free throw a player touches the basket or the backboard while the ball is in contact with the ring.

FIBA OBRI 31.3. Penalty

FIBA OBRI 31.3.1. If the violation is committed by an offensive player, no points can be awarded. The ball shall be awarded to the opponents for a throw-in from the free-throw line extended, unless otherwise stated in these rules.


Outcome: incorrect decision from the referees. Black 7 grabs a ring and it vibrates, when the ball falls in. Referees must cancel a basket and the White team should to do a throw-in from the sideline, perpendicular to the free throw line.




7. End of offense, White 3 made a shot, ball didn’t touch a ring, Rebound by Black 33, who holds the ball with both hands, giving a pass. White 3 steals the ball but the shot clock operator did not reset a time and a 24.sec.signal sounds. Referees stop the game and after conversation give the ball for a throw-in for the White team with 22.sec.left.


FIBA OBRI 14.1.1. Control of ball:

Team control starts when a player of that team is in control of a live ball by holding or dribbling it or has a live ball at his disposal.

FIBA OBRI 29.1. 24 Seconds.

FIBA OBRI 29.1.1. Whenever:

A player gains control of a live ball on the playing court, that team must attempt a shot for a field goal within 24 seconds.


Outcome: correct decision from the referees. Black 33 holds the ball with both hands, a new 24.sec.period started, immediately, when White 3 makes a steal, a new 24.sec.period started again. Referees correctly stop the game. The game restarts with a White team throw-in with 22.sec.on the shot clock.




8. 1,3.sec. till the end of quarter, a throw-in by the Red team, Red 2 receives a pass and shoots. Defender White 41 steps under the shooter. Ball misses. Referees call an act of shooting foul by White 41, and use the IRS, to rewatch- if the foul was on time or no.


FIBA OBRI 15.1.2. The act of shooting on a shot:

  • Begins when the player starts, in the judgement of a referee, to move the ball upwards towards the opponents’ basket.

  • Ends when the ball has left the player’s hand(s), or if an entirely new act of shooting is made and, in case of an airborne shooter, both feet have returned to the floor.

FIBA OBRI 34.2.2. If the foul is committed on a player in the act of shooting, that player shall be awarded a number of free throws as follows:

  • If the shot released from the 3-point field goal area is unsuccessful, 3 free throws.

FIBA OBRI F.3. Instant Replay System:

The following game situations may be reviewed:

 FIBA OBRI F.3.1. At the end of the quarter or overtime,

  • whether and how much time shall be displayed on the game clock, if:

A foul was committed before the end of the quarter or overtime.


Outcome: correct decision from the referees. Red 2 released an unsuccessful shot before the game signal sounds for the end of quarter. White 41 stepping under Red 2, before he landed with both feet’s on floor, made an act of shooting landing a personal foul. After the IRS review, referee made a correct decision - red led lights on backboard were before the illegal contact occurs during AOS. If it is not UF, then according to the rules it is EOQ that’s why a personal foul must be ignored.




Author: Oskars Lucis, ENBL Head of referees


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