The Tough Calls are sponsored by Fiziocentrs – a well known physiotherapy clinic in Latvia. The videos shown below will help to understand the game, referees and rules.
1. White 15 drives to the basket, during the shot defender Blue 42 makes a foul by holding left hand of the shooter. Referee calls unsportsmanlike foul to Blue 42.
FIBA OBRI 37.1.1. An unsportsmanlike foul is a player contact foul which, in the judgement of a referee is:
Contact with an opponent and not legitimately attempting to directly play the ball within the spirit and intent of the rules.
FIBA OBRI 15.2.1. The act of shooting on a shot: - Begins when the player starts, in the judgement of a referee, to move the ball upwards towards the opponents` basket. - Ends when the has the player`s hand(s), or if an entirely new act of shooting is made and, in case of an airborne shooter, both feet have returned to the floor.
Outcome: correct decision from the referees. Blue 42 didn`t try to play on the ball. Basket counts, one additional free throw and possession with 14 seconds should be awarded.
2. During fast break Yellow 23 receives a pass, drives to the open basket and makes a shot. In the moment, when Yellow 23 start an act of shooting, defender Black 1 catches him and tries to guard him, running very close. Contact occurs during act of shooting and referee calls a foul.
FIBA OBRI 33.1. Cylinder principle
The defensive player may not enter the cylinder of the offensive player with the ball and cause an illegal contact when the offensive player is attempting a normal basketball play within his cylinder. The boundaries of the cylinder of the offensive player with the ball are:
- The front by the feet, bent knees and arms, holding the ball above the hips,
- The rear by the buttocks, and
- The sides by the outer edge of elbows and legs.
- The offensive player with the ball must be allowed enough space for a normal basketball play within his cylinder. The normal basketball play includes starting a dribble, pivoting, shooting and passing.
The offensive player cannot spread his legs or arms outside of his cylinder and cause an illegal contact with the defensive player in order to gain an additional space.
Outcome: Incorrect decision from the referees. Offensive player initiated contact with defender and contacted is considered as marginal. Referees should leave this situation with a no call.
3. End of quarter, White 8 makes a shot and Blue 18 trying to guard the shooter, pushes him while he is still in the air. Referee calls foul in act of shooting on Blue 18. FIBA OBRI 15.2.1. The act of shooting on a shot: - Ends when the ball has left the player`s hand(s), or if an entirely new act of shooting is made and, in case of an airborne shooter, both feet have returned to the floor. FIBA OBRI 33.6. A player who is in the air - A player who has jumped into the air from a place on the playing court has the right to land again at the same place. - He has the right to land on another place on the playing court provided that the landing place and the direct path between the take-off and landing place is not already occupied by an opponent(s) at the time of take-off. - An opponent may not move into the path of a player after that player has jumped into the air. - Moving under a player who is in the air and causing contact is usually an unsportsmanlike foul and in certain circumstances may be a disqualifying foul.
Outcome: correct decision from the referees. Defender must give the shooter space to land but he made a contact when he was still in the air. It is considered as an illegal contact and foul was correctly called following with 2 free throws.
4. End of last quarter, Black 2 drives to the basket and gives a pass to his teammate Black 9, who shoots and scores three points. But before Black 2 pass was completed, he made a contact with defender White 2, who fell down after contact. Referee calls offensive foul on Black 2 and cancels the basket.
FIBA OBRI 33.3. Legal guarding position A defensive player has established an initial legal guarding position when: - He is facing his opponent, and - He has both feet feet on the floor. FIBA OBRI 33.6. A player who is in the air - If a player has taken off and landed but his momentum causes him to contact an opponent who has taken a legal guarding position beyond the landing place, the jumper is responsible for the contact. FIBA OBRI 33.4. Guarding a player who controls the ball - When guarding a player who controls (holding or dribbling) the ball, the elements of time and distance do not apply. - When judging a charge/block situation involving a player with the ball, a referee shall use the following principles: - When moving to maintain the initial legal guarding position, one foot or both feet may be off the floor for an instant, as long as the movement is lateral or backwards, but not towards the player with the ball. - Contact must occur on the torso, in which case the defensive player would be considered as having been at the place of contact first. - Having established a legal guarding position, the defensive player may turn within his cylinder to avoid injury. - In any of the above situations, the contact shall be considered as having been caused by player with the ball.
Outcome: correct decision from the referees. White 2 was stationary, in legal guarding position, with both feet on the floor and facing Black 2. Even after Black 2 made a pass, he continued movement and was responsible for this contact with White 2. Referees correctly called offensive foul on Black 2 and canceled the basket.
5. In post play Blue 32 turned around the defender White 22, took the ball in two hands and started an act of shooting. In the same moment helping defender White 30 jumped to block the shot and put his hand on the ball. Both players were still holding the ball when they landed on the floor. Referees called held ball and continued the game with alternating possession arrow.
FIBA OBRI 12. Jump ball and alternating possession FIBA OBRI 12.1.2. A held ball occurs when one or more players from opposing teams have one or both hands firmly on the ball so that neither player can gain control without undue roughness.
FIBA OBRI 12.4. Alternating possession definition
FIBA OBRI 12.4.1. Alternating possession is a method of causing the ball to become live with a throw-in rather than a jump ball.
Outcome: correct decision from the referees. When Blue 32 started act of shooting and defender White 30 legally held the ball, travelling is not considered as a violation because both players are holding the ball. It is a jump ball situation. The game should be resumed by awarding the ball for a throw-in from the place nearest to where the jump ball situation occurs, except directly behind the backboard.